Arquitectura clásica según Vitruvio

Según Vitruvio (De Architectura) la arquitectura se basa en tres principios: estabilidad (Firmitas), utilidad (Utilitas) y gracia / belleza (Venustas). Las tres categorías deben tenerse en cuenta por igual. Por un lado, están destinados a determinar el diseño arquitectónico, por otro lado sirven como criterios para la evaluación del edificio terminado.

Además, Vitruvio define seis términos arquitectónicos básicos: ordenación, dispositivo, euritmia, simetría, decoración y distribución.

La Basílica Palladiana en Vicenza de Andrea Palladio. La arquitectura renacentista transmitió y continuó los principios clásicos de la antigüedad.

“Ordinatio”, “eurythmia” y “symmetria” de vitruvio arquitectura, se refieren a la proporción del edificio. “Ordinatio” representa el “orden de medida”, es decir, la división dimensional apropiada de las extremidades de una estructura, “eurythmia” para la apariencia elegante y la apariencia apropiada en el ensamblaje de los miembros y “symmetria” para la armonía de los elementos individuales. En el primer capítulo del tercer libro, en el que Vitruvio explica las proporciones idealizadas del cuerpo humano, la reducción de sus dimensiones a formas geométricas básicas como el cuadrado y el círculo, así como la base modular de los sistemas numéricos, estas declaraciones para la proporción se profundizan aún más.

“Dispositivo” se refiere a la concepción o disposición del edificio y los planos de construcción necesarios, que define con el diseño, la sección y la vista en perspectiva (“icnografía”, “ortografía” y “escanografía”).

“Decoración” se refiere a la apariencia perfecta de un edificio de acuerdo con las reglas de las convenciones reconocidas. Como ejemplos, Vitruvio. La asignación correcta de tipos de columnas (dóricas, jónicas, corintias) a ciertas deidades en la construcción del templo, la coordinación del exterior y el interior, de los subelementos estilísticos al estilo general, desde las habitaciones hasta las direcciones, etc.

“Distributio” significa, por un lado, la distribución apropiada de los materiales de construcción y los gastos en la construcción y, por otro lado, la construcción apropiada para el residente.

El orden clásico de columnas introducido por Vitruvio todavía se usa en arquitectura.

Diferenciación con la construcción general.

¿Dónde comienza la arquitectura y se detiene el “edificio desnudo”?
Arquitectura del barroco (Wieskirche)
Edificio Art Nouveau: edificio Theresienstein en Hof
Edificio principal de la Universidad Bauhaus de Weimar (1904-1911 según los diseños de Henry van de Velde)

La arquitectura como arte funciona por su calidad de diseño especial y, por lo tanto, difiere del edificio general (ver también estética).

La idea de lo que constituye el logro arquitectónico real en el diseño y la construcción de un edificio, y que eleva el edificio más allá de lo puramente práctico, ha cambiado significativamente en el curso del siglo pasado. Hasta finales del siglo XIX, era sobre todo el uso de formas tradicionales (estilo ) con a menudo adornos ornamentales, en los que el rango artístico se manifestaba como valor agregado y belleza de un edificio en oposición consciente a una pragmática.

Con el funcionalismo del siglo XX, predominó un concepto de arquitectura, dando prioridad al propósito de los edificios (incluidas las construcciones de ingeniería). Al mismo tiempo, los aspectos constructivos, proporcionales y formadores de espacio del edificio se convirtieron en el tema de diseño de la arquitectura. Al mismo tiempo, numerosas representaciones de la modernidad, la progresividad y la expresión del presente han tratado de dar primacía a la arquitectura funcionalista. Esta comprensión funcionalista de la arquitectura se aflojó en movimientos como el posmodernismo y el deconstructivismo.

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